Friday, 16 January 2015

redirect output in text file and terminal in python simultaneously

Hello Friends,

Today, I will tell u about how to print process output on terminal as well as in file parallel.

1) First Step to import necessary package on starting of python code.Copy below line and paste in your code.

import string, os, sys, stat ,re,subprocess

2) Copy below lines and paste in your code from where you want to print output on file.

sys.stdout = os.fdopen(sys.stdout.fileno(), 'w', 0)
tee = subprocess.Popen(["tee", "terminal_log.txt"], stdin=subprocess.PIPE) os.dup2(tee.stdin.fileno(), sys.stdout.fileno())
os.dup2(tee.stdin.fileno(), sys.stderr.fileno())

It will generate "terminal_log.txt" file with output which is printed on terminal also.I hope it will use any many situation in your code.

Thanks all.

Come back soon with more interesting info.

Tuesday, 6 January 2015

phonetic alphabet

NATO phonetic alphabet:

The NATO phonetic alphabet, more accurately known as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet and also called the ICAO phonetic or ICAO spelling alphabet, as well as the ITU phonetic alphabet, is the most widely used spelling alphabet. Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are not associated with phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned code wordsacrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet so that critical combinations of letters and numbers can be pronounced and understood by those who transmit and receive voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of language barriers or the presence of transmission static.
The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet inalphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.

The Nato Phonetic Alphabet, also sometimes referred to as Alpha Bravo Charlie.
AAlphaAl fah
BBravoBrah Voh
CCharlieChar Lee
DDeltaDell Tah
EEchoEck Oh
FFoxtrotFoks Trot
HHotelHoh Tell (FAA, IMO, ITU) Ho Tell (ICAO)
IIndiaIn Dee Ah
JJuliettJew Lee Ett
KKiloKey Loh
LLimaLee Mah
NNovemberNo Vem Ber
OOscarOss Car
PPapaPah Pah
QQuebecKeh Beck
RRomeoRow Me Oh
SSierraSee Air Ah (FAA) See Air Rah (ICAO, IMO, ITU)
TTangoTang Go
UUniformYou Nee Form
VVictorVik Tah
WWhiskeyWiss Key
XX RayEcks Ray
YYankeeYang Key
ZZuluZoo Loo

download running linux 5th edition pdf

Running Linux 5th Edition

You may be contemplating your first Linux installation. Or you may have been using Linux for years and need to know more about adding a network printer or setting up an FTP server.Running Linux, now in its fifth edition, is the book you'll want on hand in either case. Widely recognized in the Linux community as the ultimate getting-started and problem-solving book, it answers the questions and tackles the configuration issues that frequently plague users, but are seldom addressed in other books.
This fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always have made the book popular.
Running Linux covers basic communications such as mail, web surfing, and instant messaging, but also delves into the subtleties of network configuration--including dial-up, ADSL, and cable modems--in case you need to set up your network manually. The book can make you proficient on office suites and personal productivity applications--and also tells you what programming tools are available if you're interested in contributing to these applications.
Other new topics in the fifth edition include encrypted email and file systems, advanced shell techniques, and remote login applications. Classic discussions on booting, package management, kernel recompilation, and X configuration have also been updated.
The authors of Running Linux have anticipated problem areas, selected stable and popular solutions, and provided clear instructions to ensure that you'll have a satisfying experience using Linux. The discussion is direct and complete enough to guide novice users, while still providing the additional information experienced users will need to progress in their mastery of Linux.
Whether you're using Linux on a home workstation or maintaining a network server, Running Linux will provide expert advice just when you need it.


5th Edition

4th Edition

download linux device driver 3rd edition pdf

Linux Device Drivers, 3rd Edition
Publisher: O'Reilly Media
Final Release Date: February 2005
Pages: 640

Device drivers literally drive everything you're interested in--disks, monitors, keyboards, modems--everything outside the computer chip and memory. And writing device drivers is one of the few areas of programming for the Linux operating system that calls for unique, Linux-specific knowledge. For years now, programmers have relied on the classic Linux Device Drivers from O'Reilly to master this critical subject. Now in its third edition, this bestselling guide provides all the information you'll need to write drivers for a wide range of devices.Over the years the book has helped countless programmers learn:
  • how to support computer peripherals under the Linux operating system
  • how to develop and write software for new hardware under Linux
  • the basics of Linux operation even if they are not expecting to write a driver
The new edition of Linux Device Drivers is better than ever. The book covers all the significant changes to Version 2.6 of the Linux kernel, which simplifies many activities, and contains subtle new features that can make a driver both more efficient and more flexible. Readers will find new chapters on important types of drivers not covered previously, such as consoles, USB drivers, and more.Best of all, you don't have to be a kernel hacker to understand and enjoy this book. All you need is an understanding of the C programming language and some background in Unix system calls. And for maximum ease-of-use, the book uses full-featured examples that you can compile and run without special hardware.Today Linux holds fast as the most rapidly growing segment of the computer market and continues to win over enthusiastic adherents in many application areas. With this increasing support, Linux is now absolutely mainstream, and viewed as a solid platform for embedded systems. If you're writing device drivers, you'll want this book. In fact, you'll wonder how drivers are ever written without it.


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Running Linux 5th Edition

Difference Between QA and QC

Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts. Since all three are necessary to effectively manage the risks of developing and maintaining software, it is important for software managers to understand the differences.

They are defined below:

  • Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives. The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.

  • Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product. The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.

  • Testing: The process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the "process of executing a system" includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.)

QA activities ensure that the process is defined and appropriate. Methodology and standards development are examples of QA activities. A QA review would focus on the process elements of a project - e.g., are requirements being defined at the proper level of detail. In contrast, QC activities focus on finding defects in specific deliverables - e.g., are the defined requirements the right requirements. Testing is one example of a QC activity, but there are others such as inspections. Both QA and QC activities are generally required for successful software development.

Controversy can arise around who should be responsible for QA and QC activities -- i.e., whether a group external to the project management structure should have responsibility for either QA or QC. The correct answer will vary depending on the situation, but general experience suggests that:

  • While line management should have the primary responsibility for implementing the appropriate QA, QC and testing activities on a project, an external QA function can provide valuable expertise and perspective.

  • The amount of external QA/QC should be a function of the project risk and the process maturity of an organization. As organizations mature, management and staff will implement the proper QA and QC approaches as a matter of habit. When this happens only minimal external guidance and review are needed.

difference between DDR3 and DDR4

Random-access memory (RAM ) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows dataitems to be read and written in roughly the same amount of time regardless of the order in which data items are accessed.[1] In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disksCD-RWsDVD-RWs and the older drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement delays.
Today, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits. RAM is normally associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where stored information is lost if power is removed, although many efforts have been made to develop non-volatile RAM chips.[2] Other types of non-volatile memory exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type offlash memory called NOR-Flash.

DDR4 Power Savings Features
 DDR4 voltage is 1.2 V (up to 40% savings)
− Lower voltage than DDR3 (1.5 V)
− On-die VREF
− Pseudo-open drain I/Os
 Manages refreshes (up to 20% savings)
− Based on temperature
 New DDR4 low-power auto self-refresh (LPASR) capability
− Changes refresh rate based on temperature
− Only refreshes parts of array that is in use
 Controller must allow fine-granularity refresh based on memory utilization
 Supports data bus inversion
− Limits number of signals transitioning, reducing simultaneous switching
output (SSO) and saving power

Comparison Between Various Latest RAM: